“Natural caring” and “ethical caring”. After reading the selection from Caring, by Nel Noddings, provide written answers to the following questions. Please give complete answers in complete sentences.
1. What is the difference between what Noddings calls “natural caring” and “ethical caring”?
2. How does Noddings understand moral obligation and a moral ideal, and how are the two concepts related?
3. Does Noddings believe in the supererogatory? Why or why not?
4. What does Noddings think is the problem with “universal” understandings of ethics, like ethics based on universal justice or universal love?
5. How does Noddings understand “right” and “wrong”?
6. According to Noddings, what is the problem with the idea of moral justification?
7. What does Noddings think is the danger of virtue-based approaches to ethics?
8. How do men and women tend to approach morality differently, according to Noddings? In particular, what does Noddings mean by saying that “women have no need of a conceptualized God”?